The key to achieving inclusive and lasting peace is to ensure public ownership and to find ways to involve civil society actors and marginalized communities, such as nomads, in dialogue, reconciliation and social peace initiatives. The negotiations were mainly an elitist process from top to bottom. Although the United Nations brought displaced persons, tribal leaders and women`s groups to Juba for a short period of time, civil society participation was limited. However, the Agreement provides that a wider range of stakeholders can be integrated into a global peace through reconciliation and transitional justice mechanisms, follow-up conferences and an inclusive national constitutional conference. Al Jazeera`s Hiba Morgan, who reported in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, said the document signed in Juba was referred to as the “final agreement,” but that the absence of the two key groups meant the agreement was incomplete. The SPLM announced its return to government on December 13, 2007 following an agreement. The agreement provides that the seat of government will pass every three months between Juba and Khartoum, although it seems that this will be largely symbolic, as well as the financing of a census (important for the referendum) and a timetable for the withdrawal of troops at the border.  Two rebel groups within the Sudan Liberation Movement (MLS) and the People`s Liberation Movement of the South (SPLM-N) refused to separate in the peace process. Juba Taharir Kaplan said that if there is peace, he is not afraid of a pandemic. Achieving a comprehensive peace also means attracting other armed movements, particularly those led by Abdel Aziz Al Hilu and Abdel Wahid Al Nur, both of which have large areas, troops and support (in both areas and Darfur respectively). Negotiations in Juba with Abdel Aziz stalled because of his demands for a secular state or, if not, the right to self-determination, but he agreed with Prime Minister Hamdok on the way forward.
Since independence in 1956, several civil wars have raged, including the one in 1983-2005, which led to the secession of the South. Sudan`s interim government and several rebel groups have signed a historic peace agreement in Juba, the capital of South Sudan. Hundreds of thousands of people have died in various conflicts, and observers say the road ahead could be difficult. At least 48 people have been killed and many others injured in ethnic violence in Darfur. The violence comes less than a week after a peace deal between the government and rebel groups in the troubled region. Sudan has a unique opportunity to adopt a democratic transition, but there is no room for complacency. Comprehensive reforms and a unified democratic front will be the key to peace, freedom and justice, as well as continued international pressure. “If there is peace, even if the crown is there, God`s will, even if I am not afraid of anything, I feel joy today,” said the chaplain in South Sudan. A peace agreement was signed on 12 September 2018 and a unity government was formed in February 2020.
However, some opposition groups refused to end the ceasefire and continued fighting. South Sudan`s civil war has killed nearly 400,000 people and the last peace agreement was signed in 2018. In February, Kiir and Machar formed a national unity government. Continued implementation of the peace agreement has been slow and further action remains to be taken. According to the UN official, the UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan is examining the developing situation and exploring how it can better support peace and protect the civilian population in the war-torn country. Signing the peace agreement between the belligerents In 2005, this class was strengthened, as oil revenues and donor funds largely supplanted looting and food aid as a means of rewarding their supporters and accumulating wealth.